Substrate is the term used to describe the substance used to recreate the ground of an animals' natural habitat within a given enclosure. Depth and type of substrate vary for different pets.
AstroTurf is a registered trademark of a company that produces artificial turfing material. However, the term is now the most common word used to describe a material suitable for various applications where the effect of grass needs to be reproduced. Very similar to the term Hoover being used to describe all vacuum cleaners.
 Sphagnum moss
A common toad seen on sphagnum moss
Any of more than 160 species of plants that make up the bryophyte genus Sphagnum, which grow in dense clumps around ponds, in swamps and bogs, on moist, acid cliffs, and on lakeshores from tropical to subpolar regions. These pale-green to deep-red plants can hold 20 times their weight in water. As they die and are compressed, they form organic peat, which is harvested and dried as fuel, as seedbed cover, and as shipping packaging for plants and live aquatic animals. Gardeners stir peat into soil to increase soil moisture, porosity, and acidity and to reduce erosion.
The term vermiculite applies to a group of minerals characterized by their ability to expand into long, worm-like strands when heated. This expansion process is called exfoliation. The name vermiculite is derived from a combination of the Latin word vermiculare meaning "to breed worms," and the English suffix-ite, meaning mineral or rock. In its expanded form, vermiculite has a very low density and thermal conductivity, which makes it attractive for use as a soil amendment, lightweight construction aggregate, and thermal insulation filler. Expanded vermiculite also has a very large chemically active surface area, which makes it useful as an absorbent in some chemical processes. When vermiculite is ground into a fine powder, it is used as a filler in inks, paints, plastics, and other materials.
Vermiculite is widely available and has many advantages